Finding the best Japanese rice cooker will have you churning out ‘fancy-restaurant’ type of fluffy rice. Whether it is brown rice, sushi, or other grains.
I’m sure you have also wondered about these restaurant-like type of rice. And how the grains do not stick to each other and detach smoothly and completely. Rice is used to make different meals; side dish, combo, or standalone.
If you are someone who eats rice frequently, investing in a rice cooker will save you time. Hence spare you from common cooking errors. All you would have to do is follow the instructions for whatever type of rice you are working with. It is that easy.
It can be used for steaming vegetables and reheating leftovers from a previous meal too. So there is a diversity when it comes to its functionality.
You might get tired of contending with issues such as water overflow, burnt pot bottom, and the frothy sticky white residue. It's now time to consider purchasing the best Japanese rice cooker.
- Zojirushi NS-VGC05 Micom 3-Cup (Uncooked) Electric Rice Cooker and Warmer
- 3 cups
- white/mixed/sushi, porridge, cake, rinse-free and quick cooking
- Read review
- Zojirushi NS-TSC10 5-1/2-Cup (Uncooked) Micom Rice Cooker and Warmer
- 5 1/2 cups
- white/sushi, mixed, porridge, sweet, brown, cake, steam, and quick cooking
- Read review
- Zojirushi NS-ZCC10 5-1/2-Cup (Uncooked) Neuro Fuzzy Rice Cooker and Warmer
- 5 1/2 cups
- white (regular/sushi, softer or harder), mixed rice, porridge, sweet, semi-brown, brown, rinse-free, and quick cooking.
- Read review
- Zojirushi Induction Heating Pressure Rice Cooker & Warmer
- 5 1/2 cups
- white (regular, softer or harder), umami, mixed, sushi/sweet, porridge, brown, GABA brown, steam-reduce, scorch, rinse-free and quick cooking
- Read review
- Tiger Corporation JBV-A10U-W 5.5-Cup Micom Rice Cooker with Food Steamer and Slow Cooker
- 5 1/2 cups
- Synchrony-cooking/Plain rice/Brown rice/Slow cooking
- Read review
Here are the things to consider when buying a Japanese rice cooker:
Filter On Size
The capacity of rice cookers is measured by a cup and they range from 3 to 10 cups. Avoid buying units bigger than you need if you want to reap the best benefits from the cooker. You should consider the number of servings per meal.
Type of Pan
Try to buy a model with a non-stick pan. If the cooker saves you time cooking, I doubt if you want to take much time cleaning after use.
If you are more of a vegetable person, then look for a rice cooker with a steamer tray. The steamer can either sit above the rice or below the rice, the choice is yours.
You should look for a cooker with a menu select key if you do not like to repeat the same menu you had before. Hence would like to switch it up once in a while. It gives you the advantage of the functionality.
This function is excellent. If you are cooking rice on a cold day, you know that it cooks more slowly. So, you would increase the temperature. The rice cooker with a fuzzy logic function does exactly the same.
What is more, the fuzzy logic also helps you in establishing rice consistency.
Keep Warm Mode
Some rice cookers will automatically change to the keep-warm mode once the rice is completely cooked. It prevents your rice from getting cold and also from burning it.
Do I need a Cooker Hood when using a Rice Cooker?
One of the benefits with Rice cookers is that you don't need to get yourself a cooker hood if you don't have one already.
That said having a high-quality Cooker hood is highly beneficial for your kitchen and your house in general. Having cooking air floating around the house isn't great!
Best Japanese Rice Cookers
If you love perfectly cooked fluffy rice, this is one of the top models out there and with three cups of uncooked rice as its capacity. This unit will feed the family and it has a lot of great features. Besides, this is one of a couple of rice cookers on this list that incorporates fuzzy logic technology. It helps you create the perfect rice dish every single time you use it.
- Micro computerized Fuzzy logic technology
- 3 cup size ideal for singles and smaller families
- Convenient cake menu for baking cakes
- Automatic keep warm
- Detachable power cord
- Menu settings include: white/mixed/sushi, porridge, cake, rinse-free and quick cooking
- cETLus listed
The 3-cup Micom Rice Cooker & Warmer is ideal for singles and smaller families. It features micro computerized Fuzzy logic technology to cook perfect rice every time. Also, it can cook as little as 1/2-cup of rice and also bakes cakes.
This rice cooker has a compact size, and this makes it very easy to store or leave out on the counter. Its dimensions are 10.9 x 7.9 x 8.8 inches and it weighs 9 pounds. It can cook a maximum of 3-cups (uncooked) rice. Easy on the eyes, it’s made of stainless steel and beige (with a little white) in color. Its control panel is an easy-to-read LCD.
One of its many great features like a non-stick interior makes it easy to clean. It also features a clock and timer functions, making it easy to set and forget it. It has an automatic keep warm feature, which is great to keep it hot and ready for you. For a touch of whimsy, it plays “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star,” to let you know your rice is done. This feature can get even the youngest child in the family involved in the rice-making process or whatever is being prepared. Once it’s done, it also keeps track of how long it’s been since the rice finished cooking.
It also has many menu settings to give you different kinds of rice for various dishes. It has settings for white, sushi, sweet, mixed, and brown rice.
It also has settings to make your rice hard or softer, depending on how you like it and want. The cooker also has quick cooking and porridge options. Included in this unit are a rice spatula, 2 measuring cups, and a recipe book that has a cheesecake recipe!
The Zojirushi NS-VGC05 Micom seems to be an excellent electric rice cooker. It’s a bit on the pricey side, but most customers don’t seem to mind, as the quality is there. It’s a long-lasting, effective rice cooker that has many satisfied customers. Thereby making it one of the top-rated cookers out there and why it makes our list.
|It is compact and can serve even the smallest family size.||It is a bit on the pricey end of good Japanese rice cookers.|
|Its fuzzy logic technology makes it easy to use.|
This rice cooker has excellent features. It comes with the Fuzzy Logic feature. Thus offering you the opportunity to personalize it according to your cooking needs. With the help of the LCD screen and digital functions, you can set this rice cooker to do whatever you want.
- Micro computerized Fuzzy Logic technology
- Doubles as a steamer with its versatile steam setting
- Easy-to-clean clear coated stainless steel exterior
- Automatic keep warm, extended keep warm and reheating cycles
- Built-in retractable power cord.
- Interchangeable melody and beep signal
- Delay timer (2 settings)
- Easy-to-read LCD control panel with Clock and Timer functions
- It has a detachable and washable inner lid
- Includes steaming basket accessory to steam foods
- Healthy brown rice setting
- Convenient cake setting for baking cakes
- Menu Settings include: white/sushi, mixed, porridge, sweet, brown, cake, steam, and quick cooking
- cETLus listed
Once you buy this device, you can also prepare mixed sushi, sweet cooking, steaming, and baking. Unlike other models. Moreover, it has a stainless steel exterior that means only one thing: durability. You can choose from two delay time settings. Furthermore, you will keep your food warm thanks to the automatic keep-warm function.
This model is almost perfect. The cooking pot is made of aluminum and has a Teflon coating. In time, this material tends to peel off and is not so durable. However, Teflon is very easy to clean and with some extra attention, the product will resist a lot.
It comes with a steaming basket to double as a steamer and a cake menu setting to bake cakes. Also, it has an attached, retractable power cord. So you never have to go looking for it risk getting it tangled up with other appliances.
This 5-1/2-cup rice cooker and warmer makes about 10 cups of cooked rice. It also includes a variety of cooking functions. Such as white rice/sushi, mixed rice, porridge, sweet, brown, cake, steam, and quick cooking. This unit uses a black thick inner cooking pan that provides even heating for better cooking. Besides, it has an interchangeable melody and beep signal when the cooking cycle has ended.
|It has 2 delay timer settings.||The cooking pot is made of aluminum and has a Teflon coating. In time, this material tends to peel off and is not so durable.|
|It comes with Fuzzy logic technology.|
|Automatic keep-warm function.|
|It is easy to clean.|
|It has many uses.|
This is a rice cooker that simplifies the process of cooking rice.
The Zojirushi NS-ZCC10 is compact and white in color. So it blends easily with kitchen furnishings no matter the color scheme of the kitchen. Its control panel display features a timer function and clock. Whether for home, professional or commercial needs, users appreciate its retractable cord. It plugs into any electric outlet, keeping a counter orderly.
This rice cooker has top features that are beneficial and programmable to create perfect rice. There will be no more need to worry about burned rice. You can choose the texture you want (soft or hard), it's saved in its menu memory until you decide to change it. Among its best-rated features is its ability to keep the rice warm without dryness or discoloration.
- 5-1/2-cup computerized rice cooker and warmer with advanced Neuro Fuzzy logic technology.
- Multi-menu selections; automatic keep-warm, extended keep-warm, and reheat cycles.
- Spherical, nonstick inner pan allows for uniform heating. LCD clock and timer, retractable cord.
- Includes 2 measuring cups, nonstick rice spoon/scooper, rice spoon holder, and recipes.
- Measures approximately 14 by 8 by 9 inches; 1-year limited warranty.
- Please ensure to measure rice in the cup that comes along with the product ON
It cooks the rice thoroughly and gives it the right texture so it's not too soggy or too hard to eat. as. It has the standard rice paddle holder on the side. As well as different cooking settings like for regular rice or for porridge.
This rice cooker is a bit on the expensive side and is definitely worth your money and a keeper!
|With its feature called ‘fuzzy logic’ which means that it decides for itself when the rice needs a little more (or a little less) cooking. Thus resulting in perfect rice preparation every time.||There seems to have been a pattern of the unit breaking down at about the one year point.|
|Besides, this is a big enough rice cooker even for the largest families. Hence it has great technology included and some useful accessories.|
This Zojirushi's Induction Heating Pressure Rice Cooker & Warmer uses pressurized cooking. As well as AI (Artificial Intelligence) to cook the perfect rice. Platinum infused nonstick inner cooking pan also helps rice cook sweeter. Pressure-cooking helps turn beta starch into alpha starch for softer and easier to digest rice. This is, in the long run, healthier for you and your family.
- Advanced fuzzy logic technology with AI
- Platinum infused nonstick inner cooking pan
- Automatically selects from three pressure levels according to the menu selected
- Healthy cooking options: brown rice and GABA brown rice settings
- Automatic keep warm, extended keep warm and reheating cycles
- Menu settings include: white (regular, softer or harder), umami, mixed, sushi/sweet, porridge, brown, GABA brown, steam-reduce, scorch, rinse-free and quick cooking
- cETLus listed, tested to follow with the FCC standards
- Made in Japan
- Instruction manual in English, French, Traditional Chinese, Korean, and Japanese.
Thanks to AI, this cooker learns and adjusts the cooking cycle to get perfect results every time. It will automatically select from 3 pressure settings according to the menu selected for the best cooking results. The platinum infused nonstick inner cooking pan changes the water quality. Hence allows rice to absorb water easily for better tasting rice.
The microchip does all the thinking for you to adjust cooking times and temperatures. It sets the precise amount of pre-soaking time of the raw grains (whatever grains you are working with). As well as the time for the final "wait" period during steaming.
The Zojirushi NP-NVC10 also includes superior induction heating technology and various cooking functions. It also has an interchangeable melody and beep signal to indicate the end of the cooking cycle. Moreover, it has an automatic keep-warm and a detachable stainless-steel inner lid.
The induction heating feature has taken rice cooking to another level. Where the heating element would be normally located at the bottom of the cooker, IH transforms the entire inner cooking pan into a heat conductor. Thus allowing for higher, more precise, and more uniform cooking temperatures.
The cool umami setting soaks the rice before cooking longer than the regular white rice setting. During this extended soaking time, the sugar (that the rice is finally broken down to in the body) contained within the rice is slowly released out into the water. Once the rice cooker begins to cook the rice, the sugar that was released into the water reattaches itself onto the surface of the rice, making the cooked rice taste sweeter. The Umami setting also extends the steaming time at the end of the cooking cycle.
When talking about safety, this rice cooker provides a pressure-control valve. Hence a backup safety valve and an inner lid filter. As well as a pressure indicator on the control panel that locks the lid during pressure-cooking. Its accessories include a rice spatula, a spatula holder, and two measuring cups. These are for regular rice and rinse-free rice.
|It has a variety of cooking functions.||It is one of the models that are a little pricey.|
|It has an amazing cooking timer setting.|
Here comes this model from Tiger. It has a 5.5 cup rice cooker (uncooked, of course) with included food steamer and slow cooker. The JBV-A10U-W rice cooker does everything you would want a rice cooker to do and a whole lot more.
- Its Syncro-cooking function "tacook" makes it possible to cook the main dish and rice at the same time.
- One push operation.
- 4 cooking menu settings (Synchrony-cooking/Plain rice/Brown rice/Slow cooking)
- Easy to clean non-stick coating inner pan
- Includes Non-stick spatula, Cooking plate, Measuring cup and Cookbook for using "Synchrony-cooking" function
It is possible to cook a main dish and rice at the same time. The result is that you have a complete meal.
This is a rice cooker that can cook 5.5 cups of uncooked rice, resulting in approximately 10 cups of cooked rice. It has an easy nonstick inner pan that makes this rice cooker easy to clean. This is a great addition to families and individuals that like to make white or brown rice on a regular basis.
This rice cooker comes with four cooking settings that are called synchrony cooking. It monitors cooking temperatures to create the perfect meal for you. The cooking plates do not affect the flavor of the foods. The ‘TaCook’ Function cooks meats, chicken, vegetables, and seafood to go with your rice.
The JBV-A10U-W rice cooker by the steam from the cooking rice that rises to cook the food on the plate. Steam is released from the top through air vents so the rice and the meat or vegetables are never overcooked or mushy. To make a meal, all you have to do is to first set the rice ready to be cooked. Then set the ingredients for the main dish and push the button and you’ll up saving energy and time involved in the entire process.
It has a large display that makes it easy to read. This means the elderly or those that have poor eyesight will like the display. It comes with a spatula that does not stick to the pan and a measuring cup. It even has a cookbook as well as a BPA free cooking plate. Trust us, it is a model you want to put on top of your list.
|Syncro-cooking technology which allows you to cook rice plus another dish if you wish.||Coming in at under $100, this is definitely a budget rice cooker. And while the price is right, it may not cook rice as well as you would like. If your budget is tight, then it is the perfect unit for you.|
|Easy to clean.|
|Single-button push operation.|
|Multiple menu settings and cooking functionality for a variety of rice types.|
|Includes a cookbook and other accessories.|
This rice cooker is compact, versatile, and ideal for smaller families.
It has a clear-coated stainless steel exterior that keeps it clean and makes it durable in the long run. The microcomputer chip function inside allows it to cook perfect rice every time.
The microcomputer chip inside allows it to cook the perfect rice every time.
- 3-cup capacity makes 6 cups of cooked rice every time. The capacity is measured in the approx. 6 oz. / 180mL rice measuring cup, using raw short-grain white rice. Other grains may vary.
- Cooking Functions: White/Mixed, Sushi, Porridge, Brown, and Quick Cooking.
- Inner cooking pan provides even heating for better cooking. And measuring lines for precise control of ingredients.
- Features detachable inner lid, easy-to-read LCD control panel, automatic and extended keep-warm setting. Reheating cycle, delay timer with two settings, and a built-in retractable power cord.
- Small footprint takes up minimal counter space. Accessories include measuring cup, nonstick rice spatula, and spatula holder.
Coming in at a high mid-range price, it comes loaded with functions and is built with sturdy quality in mind. It’s designed and built with a stainless steel body. This is for durability and ease of cleaning the outside and the inner pot is detachable and washable. It’s a computer-controlled unit that allows for the cooking of small portions. Hence it's intended for smaller meals.
It also comes with built-in menu programs and displays to keep your food on track. Thus letting you know exactly how your dish is coming along. But even if you ignore it for a bit it holds your dish warm. As well as keeping it at a ready to eat temperature while the rest of your meal finishes up. In case you want to experiment and practice new dishes, it comes with a rice recipe book.
|This cooker is easy to use.||Limited for large family and friends.|
|It is easy to clean.||No food steaming function.|
|It comes with a detachable inner lid.||This rice cooker comes with a poorly translated manual.|
|It has a timer function.||The coating material scratches easily.|
|This cooker produces high-quality rice every time.||The unit is a little pricey compared to similar models.|
|It fits well on the counter and is easy to store when not in use.|
|The different color options make this unit a perfect fit for any kitchen.|
|The cooker comes with its own spatula and measuring cup.|
The Tiger JAX rice cooker allows you to prepare two dishes simultaneously with the new "Tacook" synchronized cooking function. With minimal preparation and the press of a button, it monitors cooking temperatures to create the perfect meal. Unlike other rice cookers, Tiger's cooking plate is specially designed. So the flavors from the cooking plate do not affect the flavor or texture of the rice. Other convenient features include a slow cooker function for stews and soups. As well as a porridge function for risottos or rice porridge. Two preset cooking timers allow the user to delay cooking. With Tiger's new black and stainless steel design, it will look great in any kitchen.
- Thick inner pot (1.5mm for 5.5 cups/ 1.8mm for 10 cups)
- 10 computerized cooking menus including slow cook and brown rice settings
- 2 preset cooking timers
- Stainless steel design
- Detachable steam cap for easy cleaning
- Detachable inner lid for easy cleaning
- Tacook cooking plate included
- Cookbook included (BPA Free)
This is another rice cooker that makes use of a microcomputer. While the buttons for the rice cooker may look kind of simple, the model does also has a range of functions. It's the same as the ones that we discussed earlier. In fact, the main feature missing between this model and the previous model is that this one doesn’t bake bread. That’s not much of a loss, as most people don’t buy rice cookers because they want to make bread.
|It is easy to use and also very easy to clean.||This cooker is in the high price range of cookers.|
|It can be used as a slow cooker and as a steamer.|
HIRBO EB-FC57 Asian Style 13 in 1 Multifunctional 5-Liter Rice Cooker with Advanced 3D Dynamic Heating, Reheat and Preset Function
This HIBRO Asian style rice cooker deserves a worthy mention on this list. This Hibro Asian-style cooker features 13 pre-set options. That makes for a wide variety of delicious foods like pasta.
Set the cooker before you go to bed at night to begin cooking your breakfast in the morning. Or use the convenient reheat function to warm up leftovers.
The large LCD screen and 45-degree tilted display are easy for anyone to read. Thus eliminating any cooking errors. This unit will even tell you the cooking status of your dish while it's working!
It also contains a non-stick inner pot for easy cleaning, durability, and efficiency. This rice cooker has everything you might need. As it exhibits high-tech Fuzzy Logic for ultimate heating abilities.
- 13 Preset automatic cooking programs: Rice/Cook, Fish, Meat, Soup, Pasta, Steam, fry, Cake, Yogurt, Steam, Rice Crust, Reheat, and Preset function (to start cook anytime)
- Super thick nonstick inner pot for higher heating efficiency, durability, and easy cleaning
- Advanced heating: 3D heating with Fuzzy Logics; Dynamic and variable heating
- Capacity: 5 liters for up to 8 persons
- 110V, 60Hz, 860W
Furthermore, on the screen, you will also see the cooking status of whatever it is that you are preparing. Besides, it is very easy to clean thanks to the inner pot made of non-stick material. It is durable and efficient thanks to the fuzzy logic function.
However, even though cooking can be amazing with this rice cooker, it does not come with a cookbook. So, you will have to find the recipes on your own. It does not also have extra accessories.
|This unit is versatile, cooking anything from rice to stew to soups and pasta.||This cooker does not come with its own cookbook.|
|A warranty is available.||There are no accessories, so you have to buy the tools separately.|
|The advanced heating technology thoroughly cooks foods every time.|
|The non-stick pot is easy to clean with warm water and a rag.|
|This cooker’s lid features a removable overflow-proof lid that’s also simple to clean.|
The Zojirushi NS-WAC 10 features micro computerized Fuzzy logic technology. It allows the rice cooker to 'think' for itself. Hence it makes fine adjustments to temperature and heating time to cook perfect rice.
- Up to 5 1/2 cup capacity rice cooker and warmer with Fuzzy Logic technology
- User-friendly LCD control panel; multi-menu cooking functions
- Menu settings include: white/mixed; sushi; porridge; sweet; brown; rinse-free and quick cooking
- Accessories include rice spatula, spatula holder, and rice measuring cups
- Detachable power cord
The Zojirushi NS-WAC10-WD is cute and pearl white in appearance. The outer body is made from a dent-resistant form of plastic that operates on Fuzzy logic technology. Thanks to a micro-computerized circuit within. It makes all the calculations intuitively, cooking the perfect rice every time. There is no need to set the time and temperature anymore. As this rice cooker can sense it all and make the perfect adjustments.
It comes packed with a large and easy to read LCD display plus big buttons that you cannot miss. Some inbuilt features include a timer and clock functionality and keep-warm.
The inner cooking pan is thick and painted black. Whereas the heating mechanism is designed to heat the pan evenly in all directions. The heaters are arranged across the sides, lid, and bottom. Thus maintaining temperature all around.
The NS-WAC10 combines “mixed rice” with a white rice setting. There is no semi-brown rice menu at all. It is also very power efficient.
This rice cooker comes with a detachable cord. And accessories such as a rinse-free measuring cup, spatula holder with a spatula, and a regular rice measuring cup. The Zojirushi NS-WAC10-WD is the perfect rice cooker for a couple, kitchen with 5.5 cup capacity. But it has plenty of menu settings to make delicious and soft rice.
Now, this Zojirushi is not made in Japan, instead, it is the result of Chinese manufacturing. This does not mean poor quality though. The outside material is some sort of plastic that does not dent easily. Hence the plastic is designed to handle heat well.
|This rice cooker, however, does a perfect job even with one cup of rice.||It takes a lot of time to cook rice so you have to plan earlier than usual.|
|There are settings and configurations for various types of rice and quantity.||It is heavy even though it is a tiny, compact cooker.|
|The fuzzy logic function does most of all the thinking for you.|
|It is easy to clean.|
The Rosewill RHRC-13001 Fuzzy Logic Rice Cooker and Food Steamer is your key to cooking healthier rice. It uses a three-dimensional heating system that distributes the heat evenly across the pot for better cooking results. The steam controlling technology prevents the steam from leaking throughout the cooking process. As a result, the rice cooked using this equipment stays moist and preserves its taste. This rice cooker is designed with multi-function options. So you can decide on the preferred cooking process. It also has an LCD monitor that displays the cooking status.
- 700W, 1.0L, 5.5 cups(Uncooked)
- LCD display, digital control, plastic body
- Inner pot with non-stick coating
- Multi-function options: precise cooking, fast cooking, small quantity rice cooking, porridge, stewing small pot rice, reheating, soup, steaming and soaked rice
- 8 pre-programmed modes: Regular, Quick, Cake, Porridge, Soup, Steam, Brown(Clay Pot rice), Reheat
This cooks up to 11 cups of restaurant-style rice and utilizes a three-dimensional heating system. As well as steam controlling technology for healthier results. With its multi-function option you decide the preferred cooking process. The three-dimensional heating system distributes heat evenly across the pot for better cooking results.
Moreover, the steam controlling technology prevents steam from leaking throughout the cooking process. This will ensure the rice stays moist and preserve its taste.
It has various multi-function options. These include precise cooking, fast cooking, and a small quantity of rice cooking. Hence porridge, stewing small pot rice, reheating, soup, steaming, and soaked rice. 8 pre-programmed modes are also available. Such as regular, quick, cake, porridge, soup, steam, brown (clay pot rice), and reheat.
|The steam vent part is very cheaply made.||The price can make you hold back on making a purchase.|
|It also has a tendency to boil over when you make more than 1.5cups of brown rice.|
|This rice cooker will keep your rice warm and fresh up to 2-3 days. Your rice will not get soggy or dried.|
Everyone loves rice, believe it or not, and it needs a bit of special attention while cooking.
Rice is considered a staple, a comfort food, a side dish, and the main meal.
Rice is one of the main sources of calories for billions of people. Hence a highly nutritious component of a healthy diet.
For rice, there needs to be very little steam allowed outside of the pot. It needs a steady heat if you want it to cook to perfection with an individual, non-sticky rice kernel.
Healthy and delicious rice is now a choice and purchase away. Therefore, having the best Japanese rice cooker to prepare it would be a wise investment.
These rice cookers are excellent tools that everyone should have in their kitchen. They are good not only for the rice but also for many other dishes. For example, you can prepare veggies, bake cakes, pasta, or soups. The Japanese producers have added many functions to their products. So, their products are very easy to use. With a Japanese rice cooker you can have a restaurant-quality meal every time you want.
Choosing the best Japanese rice cooker for your family will depend on what other things you hope that it can do. As well as the price range that you hope to stay within. It may also help to know before you go shopping how much rice you need to cook per meal.
After reviewing all these products we hope our list can serve as a thorough guide. It will help you navigate through the thousands of rice cookers in the market. So you can buy the best Japanese rice cooker you can get the most of.